What We Treat

Featured by Condition

An estimated 2 million people in the UK have an addiction and making the decision to seek treatment can be one of the hardest decisions a person has to make.

Cardinal Clinic offers a wide range of support and treatments, for both substance and behavioural addictions, which are tailored to individual needs.

Treatment for most addictions is normally provided on an in-patient basis. However, some patients can benefit from day treatments instead of being an in-patient. This can be for a number of reasons, including personal commitments and lifestyles.

Many addiction programmes start with a detox period, which usually lasts 7 to 10 days. This is carried out under the medical supervision of a Consultant Psychiatrist and fully trained nursing staff. Medication is often prescribed to ease the symptoms of withdrawal. After the detox period the patient will then be assessed again to look at the underlying reasons for the addiction and to consider how these can be addressed.

The programme deals with all kinds of addiction, including:

Alcohol

Problem Drinking

Binge Drinking

Drugs

Gambling

Food

Exercise

Internet addictions

Behavioural addictions such as OCD

Treatment Structures:

Consultant and Medical assessment

Detoxification programme carried out under medical supervision to ease the symptoms of withdrawal

Individual counselling to help the patient to understand the level of their addiction and to address any issues that are causing the addiction

Group therapy to help the patient to realise they are not alone and to learn from other people’s experiences

Holistic therapies, such as medication and aromatherapy, to help the patient stay focused on letting go of the addiction

Family support meetings, since the family play a vital role in helping to recognise the patient’s addictions. There is also support for the family, as helping someone with an addiction can often be tiring and we have relatives support to help.

Links to local support groups. For example, we strongly encourage all patients who come in for an alcohol addiction to attend regular AA meetings after leaving Cardinal Clinic. We will help to set up contact with such groups to ensure that, once leaving the Clinic, the patient can attend the support groups straight away.

For alcohol addictions we also have a 10-day and 14-day, fixed price detox programme that is designed to help stop drinking safely.

Anger is a normal and often healthy emotion, but when it gets out of control it can become destructive and can lead to many problems in all aspects of a person’s life, affecting work, relationships and the quality of life. Leaning how to deal with your anger is important to your well being and to that of others around you.

Anger can vary in intensity and, like every emotion, it is accompanied by changes in the body, including a faster heartbeat and increased adrenaline.

Some people are able to control their anger and express it a constructive way while others lash out in an uncontrollable and aggressive way, even if they are normally not an aggressive person. Others internalise their anger, which can have negative emotional and physical effects.

Anger Management Techniques

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

This teaches you how certain thinking patterns are causing your symptoms by giving you a distorted picture of what is going on in your life and by making you feel angry sometimes for no good reason and provoking you into ill-chosen actions.

Behaviour Therapy

This helps you weaken the connections between troublesome situations and your habitual and angry reactions to them. It deals with reactions such as fear, depression or rage, and self-defeating or self-damaging behaviour. It also teaches you how to calm your mind and body, so that you can feel better, think more clearly and make better decisions.

Assertiveness Training

This teaches people how to express their feelings in a calm way that is respectful to others and also how to say ‘no’ to situations without causing confrontation.

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An estimated 1.6 million people in England are dependent drinkers and making the decision to seek treatment can be one of the hardest decisions a person has to make.

Cardinal Clinic offers a wide range of treatments for alcohol, substance and behavioural addictions, which are tailored to individual needs.

Many alcohol programmes start with a detox period, which lasts 7 to 10 days. At Cardinal Clinic this is carried out under the medical supervision of a Consultant Psychiatrist and fully trained nursing staff. Medication is prescribed to ease the symptoms of withdrawal. After the detox period the patient will then be assessed again to look at the underlying reasons for their drinking and to consider how these can be addressed.

If you would like more information about alcoholism then please watch our video here.

Treatment Structures:

Consultant Psychiatrist

Medication assessment to include blood screen

Individual and group counselling to help the patient to understand their drinking and address some underlying issues that help prevent relapse

Family support meetings. There is also individual support for the family, as helping someone with alcoholism can often be tiring

Links to local support groups. For example, we strongly encourage all patients to attend AA meetings during and after leaving Cardinal Clinic

We have a 10-day and 14-day fixed price alcohol detox programme that is designed to help stop drinking safely. The packages include:

Consultant assessment and in-patient charges

Physical assessment and blood screen

10/14 day in-patient care in individual en-suite bedroom

Medication to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal

Full Clinic programme to include alcohol support groups

Literature/recovery information

10/14 After care support groups

Relatives support

To commence this package we require a referral letter from your GP. Treatment can usually be started within 24-hours. The package is paid for on admission:

  • 10 days £6,350
  • 14 days £8,350

Contact Sally Pincott

Everyone feels anxious from time to time. It is a normal human response to stressful or new situations such as going to a new school, changing jobs, parents divorcing, losing a friend.

In some instances being anxious can improve our performance, as we have been prepared for the stressful or new event.

For one in ten people in the UK anxiety affects them to such a degree that they can feel that it is taking over their normal life. Excessive amounts of anxiety are often associated with other conditions such as depression.

When should you seek help?

You should ask for help to treat your anxiety when:

It is prolonged or severe
It interferes with your day to day activities such as school, work or socialising
It happens without having a stressful or new event occurring.

Symptoms of Anxiety

Anxiety causes us to have two kinds of responses: one is physical and the other is psychological. The physical symptoms are caused by our brains that are preparing us for the stressful or new event, making us ready for a “fight or flight” response. Your heart and lungs work faster along with other parts of your body; adrenaline is also released. All these factors mean that the following symptoms can occur:

Dry mouth

Rapid heartbeat

Tightness of your chest

Pains in your chest

Dizziness

Diarrhoea

Excessive sweating

Blushing

Frequent urination

Psychological symptoms can include:

Lack of concentration

Irritability or anger

Insomnia

Fear of madness

Feeling of not being in control of your actions

Anxiety can also be associated with other disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder or panic attacks

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Bipolar Affective Disorder previously known as Manic Depression is a severe and often recurrent illness, manifesting in cycles of elevated moods (mania) or low moods (depression). It is a common condition, and can take years to get the diagnosis right as many patients suffer with prolonged periods of low mood and anxiety with occasional short lived episodes of hypomania.

This is often treated as depression with little improvement on antidepressants. As many as 20% of people complaining of depression to their doctor actually have Bipolar Disorder.

30% of patients suffer with chronic symptoms, with some of them being depressed 50% of the time. There is also a high rate of completed suicide.

It takes an average of 10 years for people to enter treatment for Bipolar Disorder after symptoms begin. This is caused in part by delays in diagnosis. Most people with Bipolar Disorder have additional psychiatric conditions (such as substance abuse or anxiety) that can make overall diagnoses more challenging.

What are the Signs and Symptoms?

Depressive Phase – low mood, anxiety, no enjoyment of life, disturbed sleep with early morning wakening, low energy, poor appetite, poor concentration, hopelessness, neglect in self care and thoughts of suicide.

Manic Phase – elevated mood, lots of energy, rushing thoughts but inability to plan and see anything through. Excessive talkativeness, reduced need for sleep, missing meals, poor concentration and taking risks such as fast driving, getting into fights, overspending money and sexual promiscuity.

The Diagnosis

  • Taking a comprehensive history to arrive at a clear diagnosis
  • Assessing risk e.g. safety to drive or stay on your own at home, risk of suicide
  • Medication – stopping antidepressant, starting mood stabilisers
  • Psychoeducation of the patient and family so that they understand the illness and how best to manage it
  • Psychological Therapy

With effective treatment and a good understanding of the illness, one is able to live a busy and fulfilling life.

 

 

 

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A disorder characterised by displaying behaviours over a long period of time which significantly deviate from socially acceptable norms for the individual’s age and situation.

There are many different types of behavioural Disorders, such as:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was once thought to affect only children, but symptoms can persist into adulthood. The cause of the disorder is unknown, but problems with brain chemistry might play a part.

Asperger syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects how the brain works. It shapes a child’s social, emotional and communication skills and behaviours. Asperger syndrome is rarely recognised before the age of three. There is no cure, but those affected may be assisted with support, regular routine, training and medication.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of a group of psychiatric conditions known as ‘personality disorders’. People with BPD have difficulty relating to other people. With treatment, the symptoms of BPD can be managed better, reduced or even eliminated.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) sufferers have recurring and unwanted thoughts about feared situations (obsessions), which they often try to fight with mental or physical rituals, i.e. excessive repetition of actions, washing, checking or counting, or agonising ruminations (compulsions).

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Depression is an illness that can affect the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself and the way you think about everything.

Depression is more than a passing mood. It is not a sign of weakness, and it cannot be willed or wished away.

Depression affects one in four people at some stage in their lives. At any one time 5% of the population will be suffering from severe depression. Whether you suffer from mild or severe depression, there are always treatments available.

Symptoms of Depression

  • Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells
  • Significant changes in appetite and sleep patterns
  • Irritability, anger, worry, agitation, anxiety
  • Pessimism, indifference
  • Loss of energy, persistent lethargy
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness
  • Inability to concentrate, indecisiveness
  • Inability to take pleasure in former interests, social withdrawal
  • Unexplained aches and pains
  • Recurring thoughts of death or suicide

Types of Depression

Clinical depression like other illnesses comes in different forms. Three of the most common types of depressive disorders are major clinical depression, dysthymia, bipolar or manic depression. Within each of these types, there are variations in the number, severity and persistence of symptoms.

Major clinical depression is characterised by a combination of symptoms, including a low mood that interferes with the ability to work, sleep and enjoy once-pleasurable activities. Disabling episodes of clinical depression can occur once, twice, or several times in a lifetime.

Dysthymia is a less severe type of clinical depression. It involves long-term (chronic) symptoms that do not disable, but yet prevent the affected person from functioning at “full steam” or from feeling good. Sometimes, people with dysthymia also experience episodes of major clinical depression.

Bipolar Depression (Manic Depression) shows a particular pattern of inheritance. Not nearly as common as the other types of depressive disorders, bipolar disorder involves cycles of clinical depression and mania, or excessive excitability. Bipolar disorder is often a recurring condition. Sometimes the mood switches are dramatic and rapid, but more often they are gradual.

Post Natal Depression is a condition that occurs when a woman becomes depressed after having a baby. Sometimes, there may be an obvious reason, often there is none. It can be even more distressing when a woman has so looked forward to having a baby through the months of pregnancy. She may feel guilty for feeling like this, or even feel that she can’t cope with being a mother. It can last for weeks or several months, sometimes longer.

Around 1 in every 10 women has Post Natal Depression after having a baby.

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An estimated 2 million people in the UK have an addiction and making the decision to seek treatment can be one of the hardest decisions a person has to make.

Cardinal Clinic offers a wide range of support and treatments, for both substance and behavioural addictions, which are tailored to individual needs.

Treatment for most addictions is normally provided on an in-patient basis. However, some patients can benefit from day treatments instead of being an in-patient. This can be for a number of reasons, including personal commitments and lifestyles.

Many addiction programmes start with a detox period, which usually lasts 7 to10 days. This is carried out under the medical supervision of a Consultant Psychiatrist and fully trained nursing staff. Medication is often prescribed to ease the symptoms of withdrawal. After the detox period the patient will then be assessed again to look at the underlying reasons for the addiction and to consider how these can be addressed.

The programme deals with all kinds of addiction, including:

  • Alcohol
  • Problem Drinking
  • Binge Drinking
  • Drugs
  • Gambling
  • Sex
  • Food
  • Exercise
  • Internet addictions
  • Behavioural addictions such as OCD

Treatment Structures:

Consultant and Medical assessment

Detoxification programme carried out under medical supervision to ease the symptoms of withdrawal

Individual counselling to help the patient to understand the level of their addiction and to address any issues that are causing the addiction

Group therapy to help the patient to realise they are not alone and to learn from other people’s experiences

Holistic therapies, such as medication and aromatherapy, to help the patient stay focused on letting go of the addiction

Family support meetings, since the family play a vital role in helping to recognise the patient’s addictions. There is also support for the family, as helping someone with an addiction can often be tiring and we have relatives support to help.

Links to local support groups. For example, we strongly encourage all patients who come in for an alcohol addiction to attend regular AA meetings after leaving Cardinal Clinic. We will help to set up contact with such groups to ensure that, once leaving the Clinic, the patient can attend the support groups straight away.

For alcohol addictions we also have a 10-day and 14-day, fixed price detox programme that is designed to help stop drinking safely.

Sally Pincott or Emily Stevens.

Eating Disorders are conditions in which there is a serious disturbance in the way someone deals with food, weight and body image.

Anorexia nervosa (anorexia) is where a person has an intense fear of putting on weight and will severely limit the amount of food they eat and will reduce their weight to an unhealthily low level.

Bulimia nervosa (bulimia) is an eating disorder in which people have cycles of eating too much in a short space of time (often in secret). They then have a feeling of shame or guilt for over-eating, so find ways of getting rid of the food. This may be though vomiting, taking laxatives, excessive exercise, fasting or a combination of some or all of these.

Binge-Eating People with binge-eating disorder frequently eat large amounts of food while feeling a loss of control over their eating. This disorder is different from binge-purge syndrome (bulimia nervosa) because people with binge-eating disorder usually do not purge afterwards by vomiting or using laxatives.

Treating Eating Disorders

Cardinal Clinic has many years experience with dealing with Eating Disorders and has a dedicated team consisting of:

  • Consultant Psychiatrists
  • Consultant Psychologists
  • Nutritional Therapists
  • Physiotherapist
  • Eating Disorder Nurses
  • Family Therapist

Patients are nutritionally assessed and given a dietary prescription to help resolve their disordered eating patterns. Weight management may also be discussed

There is a lot of emphasis on psychological therapy to help to identify and treat the underlying reasons for the Eating Disorder. Patients receive a large amount of individual treatment to compliment the group programme which helps address these underlying reasons and to learn coping techniques to apply upon leaving the Clinic.

Physiotherapy can be a very important part of recovery for many patients. Our fully trained physiotherapist has a special interest in Eating Disorders and provides exercise education as well.

Cardinal Clinic offers full support for the families and carers. There is always a member of the eating disorder team to speak with for advice or support.

Click here to download our “Eating Disorders Leaflet

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A psychiatric emergency when it occurs causes major disruption to the patient, carer and family.

We can help GPs organise immediate help, this can be admission to the Clinic, domiciliary consultation or setting up a Section.

Cardinal Clinic is pleased to offer a 24-hour crisis helpline for doctors to obtain help when they need it quickly:-

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Obesity can cause a vast number of problems, from back pain to heart disease, and there is much evidence that it is not only diet that makes some people more prone to weight problems than others, but also genetic make up, hormonal differences, metabolic rates and physical activity.

Cardinal Clinic helps people who struggle with controlling their weight and feel that it is affecting their lives. If you have not succeeded on weight loss programmes or feel that your health is in jeopardy because of your weight, then Cardinal Clinic can help.

There are three main treatment plans available:

  • Day Care Weight Management – This is a 12 week programme held one day a week. Patients participate in a closed group every Thursday for 12 weeks. The programme consists of:
  • Pre- and post-assessment, with screening for any Eating Disorder such as Binge-Eating
  • Psychological intervention including Self-Esteem, Motivation and addressing the underlying factors behind unsuccessful weight loss in the past
  • Nutritional input from one of our Dieticians, including education and practical work
  • Exercise from a fully trained Physiotherapist who specialises in Eating Disorders. Exercise can be tailored to suit each individual
    Reflexology and Aromatherapy

Psychological support for those using local weight loss services – Cardinal Clinic offers the psychological and emotional support for those who are already using local weight loss services such as Slimmers’ World and Weight Watchers. Each patient is screened to ensure there is no presence of an Eating Disorder that could contribute to lack of weight loss. The Psychological work looks at the underlying reasons for the lack of weight loss and helps to address these factors. It also looks at Self-Esteem and Motivation. This all helps to ensure relapse is prevented as much as possible.

Cardinal Clinic can also help to arrange for patients to join local services such as Weight Watchers and Slimmers’ World.

Pre- and post-surgery Care – For those who wish to have weight loss surgery, we provide full care both before and after the operation. This is recommended by most surgeons who perform the surgery. It is important to have this care as the implications of surgery are vital to be understood before you decide to go ahead with the operation. The psychological aftercare ensures that you are coping with the change and to ensure that you remain healthy and understand what you can and cannot eat.

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OCD is the fourth most common mental illness after depression, addictions and social phobias. Approximately 1 in 50 adults and 1 in 200 children suffer from OCD.

Sufferers of OCD have persistent, recurring and unwanted thoughts about feared situations (obsessions), which they often attempt to fight with mental or physical rituals, e.g. excessive repetition of actions, washing, checking or counting, or agonising ruminations (compulsions).

OCD affects males as frequently as females. Its average age of onset is around 20 years old, but studies have shown that it takes up to 7-8 years for someone to ask for treatment for OCD.

Examples of Obsessions:

  • Fear of shameful behaviour
  • Death or disaster
  • Fear of causing “bad things” to happen
  • Contamination
  • Fear of sexual thoughts
  • Symmetrical arrangements
  • Intrusive thoughts & images
  • Unsatisfactory body image

Examples of Compulsions:

  • Counting
  • Washing / Cleaning
  • Checking (taps, locks etc)
  • Measuring
  • Repeating actions or tasks
  • Confessing imaginary “sins”
  • Hoarding

Treatment

Cardinal Clinic has a specialist OCD Clinic which offers a full assessment and individually tailored treatment plan involving:

Individual Therapy This is generally with a Psychologist and looks to understand the reasons for the OCD and to learn to treat the OCD. The most common form of treatment is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Exposure therapy can also be used if the therapist feels this is appropriate.

Group Therapy A group is a powerful way of helping sufferers, as it helps them to identify that they are not alone, that there are other people with similar issues. Group treatment can also allow patients to learn from other patients to see what has and has not worked for them with regards to treatment.

Support Group Upon leaving the OCD treatment plan, patients can join the OCD support group which encourages them to talk about any problems and successes they have had since leaving the Clinic. It is also a very useful backup for ex-patients as it allows them to feel safe knowing there are other people willing to listen as well as offering them the opportunity to speak with their Psychologist and therapists from the Clinic. Relatives and carers are also encouraged to join the support group, as caring for someone with OCD can be hard and it is important to learn how the carer can best help and support the sufferer.

Children and OCD

Cardinal Clinic has treatment plans for both adults and children and specialist Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists to ensure your child is looked after in the most appropriate and understanding way. Often the Psychologist treating children with OCD will involve the parents to try to ensure the parents do not encourage the OCD whilst the child is at home.

Cardinal Clinic would like to thank OCD UK for their support and hard work helping all OCD sufferers

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A panic attack is where your body is put into a state of alert preparing you for “fight or flight”.

This is a normal human response to danger in order to protect you from harm. However, this response is often unwanted and unnecessary and can make situations more stressful and upsetting.

Many people do not know what triggers their panic attacks, whilst others will experience a panic attack in specific situations. Often people fear the panic attack itself and find that they are getting anxious about having one.

Panic attacks can often make us feel helpless, fearful and can cause us to lose our confidence; this in turn makes the panic even worse.

Symptoms

Panic attacks often come with two kinds of symptoms:

  • Physical symptoms:
  • Heart palpitations
  • Hyperventilation
  • Diarrhoea
  • Sweating
  • Blushing
  • Shaking
  • Nervous twitches
  • Muscle tension
  • Feeling sick

Psychological Symptoms:

  • Feeling worried, anxious, tense
  • Intrusive and unwanted thoughts
  • Helplessness
  • Feeling a lack of control
  • Feeling rushed and overwhelmed
  • Fear of dying

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Being paranoid means being suspicious without reason, sometimes believing that other people are trying to harm you.

We can all be suspicious at times and mistrust other people, but those who suffer from paranoia are always looking for the forthcoming betrayal or attack and anticipating that something awful will happen.

People with mild paranoia often realise their suspicions are unfounded and know they are being paranoid. In more severe paranoia the sufferer does not think their suspicions are unfounded and can often not distinguish between reality and fantasy.

What causes paranoia?

Paranoia is a complex mixture of thoughts and feelings; it is unlikely to have one cause. Possible causes could be:

Genetic Factors

As we can inherit behaviour from our parents, there could be some link with our genes.

Childhood Influences

If a child grows up believing the world is unsafe and that people will always let you down, this could shape the way in which the child thinks and could lead to its having paranoid feelings.

Social Factors

Paranoia is not completely inside someone’s mind, but can be a response to the world itself and the stresses that it places on people.

Thinking Problems

How the way someone judges themselves can lead to paranoia. People suffering from paranoia often have low self-esteem in some aspect of their personality and, to protect themselves, they can interpret other people’s actions and intentions as negative rather than finding any fault in themselves

Effects of Drugs

Many drugs can play a part in someone’s paranoia. Cannabis, Cocaine, ecstasy, LSD, amphetamines and alcohol can often trigger a person to become paranoid.

With the use of medication and professional psychiatry it is possible to help paranoid patients to identify their paranoia and to be ready to treat it.

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Cardinal Clinic has family therapists who specialise in helping families overcome difficulties within the family unit.

The family therapist helps with every kind of family issue, for example:

  • Troubled teenagers
  • Help with new relationships
  • Helping children to deal with a parent’s divorce
  • Dealing with bereavement
  • Help for parents who have children with an issue such as eating disorders

Child Psychiatry

We have specialist Child Psychiatrists who are qualified to help with all aspects of psychiatry for children. You are welcome to come with your child for assessment and treatment and will be consulted throughout the treatment plan.

Our Child Psychiatrists see children of all ages, including babies and toddlers, for many different reasons, e.g. not feeding, disturbed sleep patterns, OCD, eating disorders, mood disorders and many more. If you are worried about your child, you are welcome to phone the Clinic and ask for advice. If necessary you can leave a message for one of the Child Psychiatrists.

Relatives’ Group

We have a dedicated group that runs on a Wednesday for relatives of in-patients and day-patients at Cardinal Clinic. We understand the strains that are put on the families of sufferers. This is a good opportunity to get some information on how you can help at home and to speak with other relatives. For more information regarding times, please call us or speak to one of the nurses at the Clinic.

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A phobia is an excessive or unreasonable fear of something, from an insect to a situation such as a crowded place.

Phobias often start in childhood for no apparent reason; sometimes they emerge after a traumatic event. Other people find they have become phobic for no reason later in adult life.

When someone with a phobia encounters the “thing” they have a phobia about, they will have symptoms similar to those of anxiety and panic attacks, e.g.

  • Racing heart beat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Excessive sweating
  • Chest pains
  • Shaking

They will also have psychological/emotional symptoms such as:

  • Feeling embarrassed
  • Fear of losing control
  • Fear of passing out

Most people who suffer from a phobia will try their hardest to avoid the “thing” they are phobic about. This can be easier for some people and harder for others, depending on the phobia. Someone who has a phobia of snakes is less likely to see a snake than someone who has a phobia of birds. But whatever phobia you have, they can all be extremely upsetting and make life more difficult.

When should you seek help?

If your phobias interfere with your daily life and hinder your ability to lead your life the way you want to

If you experience a lot of distress or anxiety

If you are forced to avoid situations that you should not be avoiding

If you suffer from excessive blushing, shaking, sweating in social situations or feel that it is affecting your social skills.

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It is well understood that mental health and physical health should not be separated. Physiotherapy has an important role to play in helping patients with mental health problems. Research shows that regular exercise affects mood and self-esteem.

Physiotherapy also plays a vital role in helping to treat patients suffering from an eating disorder. Patients at the Clinic with anorexia or bulimia are encouraged to use our physiotherapy service to help with treatment.

Physiotherapy services at Cardinal Clinic are provided by Apple Physiotherapy who visit the Clinic twice weekly to see patients

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What is Post Traumatic Stress?

A collection of reactions, feelings, thoughts, behaviour that are experienced following a sudden distressing event which is outside the range of normal everyday life. It is the unexpectedness of the incident which seems to evoke the stress because it undermines a person’s trust in normality. Incidents that can sometimes lead to signs of PTSD include such things as burglary, an attack, bereavement, divorce or an accident.

When does it occur and to whom?

Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress may not appear for days, weeks or months after the event, and can affect those not directly involved in an incident – e.g. those who witness an accident, or rescue workers, or relatives of those involved. Symptoms include:

  • Recurrent intrusive thoughts and recollections of the event
  • Changes in sleep pattern (not wanting to sleep or wanting to sleep all the time)
  • Vivid dreams of the event
  • Behaving as if the event is happening again
  • Changes in self-esteem (e.g. feeling useless)
  • Numbed responses to events that would normally evoke a reaction
  • Poor concentration
  • Reduced interest in the external world (feelings of detachment)
  • A sense of needing to be ultra-alert
  • A sense of being vulnerable
  • Fear of losing control
  • Avoidance of places or activities that remind you of the event
  • Forgetting important parts of the event
  • Guilt of surviving or for not doing things that might have prevented the event

When should you seek help?

If you feel disturbed by intense feelings or body sensations that you are finding hard to cope with

If you think that your emotions are not falling into place, and that you feel very tense, confused, empty, or exhausted

If you feel you have to keep active in order not to feel distressed

If you have continuing nightmares and/or poor sleep

If you have nobody to talk to about your feelings and you wish to talk to someone

If your relationships seem to be suffering or sexual problems develop

If you smoke, drink or take medication to excess since the event

If your work performance suffers

If you cannot stop thinking about the event.

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The word psychosis is used to describe a group of conditions that affect the way a person thinks, feels and understands.

Typically, a person may experience unusual or distressing perceptions such as hallucinations or delusions, which may be accompanied by a reduced ability to cope with usual day-to-day activities and routines. Someone who has these unusual experiences is described as having an episode of psychosis.

Psychosis is most likely to occur in young adults in their twenties and can affect anyone including men and women from all walks of life. It is quite common and approximately four out of every hundred people will experience a psychotic episode at some time in their lives. Most people make a full recovery from the experience.

Psychosis can have an influence on the following:

  1. Perception – seeing, understanding and interpreting reality.
  2. Cognition – thinking processes, logical progression of thoughts, ideas and memories e.g. believing that you are being followed.
  3. Mood – emotions, sadness, anxiety, depression, feeling detached or extremely low.
  4. Personality – sense of self and identity e.g. feeling you are not really yourself
  5. Behaviour – actions and responses. Sometimes a person will feel they are no longer in control of their own thoughts.
  6. Movement – gestures, involuntary body movements

Psychosis is the behavioural manifestation of chemical imbalance in the brain. Its origins can be in faulty DNA, but many other factors contribute – family relationships, viruses, drugs, traumatic experiences, sleep deprivation.

Treatment is primarily chemical – neuroleptics, sedatives, antidepressants – but that does not preclude the importance of a supportive environment, psychotherapy, family therapy, TLC, and where necessary a taking over of control.

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Everyone who is in a relationship or cares about their relationships may need assistance at some time to:

  • Help them deal with problems or difficulties in a relationship.
  • Learn how to form or improve a relationship.
  • Cope with a relationship that has broken down.
  • Help to change a relationship where there is violence and abuse.

In every relationship that is important to us there is conflict at times. Being able to handle conflict and deal with differences is important in establishing and maintaining healthy relationships.

People often get very upset and angry when they see that their partner has different values, beliefs or expectations. We all need to understand and accept that between any two people there will be differences in ideas and expectations and, at times, conflict and strong expression of feelings.

Our relationships actually become stronger if we talk about these differences. We need to find out that differences are always going to be part of the relationship and that issues might have a solution if they are discussed more.

All couples experience problems in one form or another – it is part of sharing your life with another human being. The difference between relationships that work and those that do not is how well couples deal with the challenges and problems they face in their life together. Advice or extra skills can often assist.

Counselling aims to help improve relationships

  • To help the couple understand the relationship they have.
  • To discover why they chose each other in the first place.
  • To find out what they wanted from their relationship and from each other.
  • To understand how they contributed to whatever their relationship has become.
  • To discuss what they feel about each other now.
  • To consider what they are prepared to do to make the relationship work.

Separation / Divorce

Counselling programs also help people who are separating and/or getting divorced to deal with their grief and anger, as well as to let go so that they can move on with a new sense of purpose and optimism. This includes looking at:

  • How relationships change.
  • How to bear with and manage the grief.
  • What the real value of anger is.
  • What real acceptance is and what it enables us to get.
  • Discovering a pathway for your separation.
  • Learning to be “single”.
  • Being able to face moving on to a new and sustaining relationship.

Counselling and working through the problems of separation with someone who has no involvement or investment in the outcome can help people get through this difficult time.

In reality many people live perfectly happy, fulfilled lives following a relationship breakdown. Many people choose to re-partner and many do not.

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Self-harm is the deliberate damage of a person’s own body, more often than not with no conscious intent to commit suicide.

Young people have the highest rate of self-harm: approximately three teenagers harm themselves every hour in the UK. One in ten have harmed by the age of 16. Figures suggest that four times more girls harm themselves than boys. Self-harm is often done secretively and someone can suffer for many years before seeking help or before anyone else finds out.

There are a number of reasons why people self-harm and everyone will have their own reason for doing it. Many reasons are common:

  • To release or express anger
  • To turn emotional pain into physical pain – as some people feel they can cope with that pain more easily
  • To communicate distress
  • To punish themselves

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Many people suffer from sexual difficulties and are embarrassed to ask for help. Cardinal Clinic has been helping people with a wide range of issues for many years.

We have trained sexual and relationship psychotherapists who have vast experience in helping to turn people’s lives around.

Some of the sexual conditions treatable medically and psychologically:

  • Premature Ejaculation
  • Impotence (better known today as Erectile Dysfunction)
  • Fear of Sex (better known today as Sexual Aversion Syndrome)
  • Internet Sexual Addictions
  • Love and Sexual Personal Addiction
  • Problems arising from Sexual Abuse
  • Problems of Sexual Identity
  • General Sexual Trauma
  • Trans-sexuality

Some of the relationship/marital difficulties helped by psychotherapy:

  • Psychological and Personal conflict arising from Infidelity
  • Communication Problems
  • Preparation for “Amicable” divorce
  • Individual psychological problems interfering with the relationship

The relationship with yourself and others

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